Maternal haplogroup k2

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Maternal haplogroup k2

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You can help. They may be eligible to participate in our study that will help scientists search for genetic links to the disease, and potentially help fight it. Learn more. Your maternal haplogroup assignment is based on your mitochondrial DNAwhich you inherited from your mother. Both males and females inherit their mitochondrial DNA and, therefore, their haplogroup assignment from their mothers.

T - Y Haplogroup T

Haplogroups are defined by specific sets of shared genetic variation. These maps reflect human migration over tens of thousands of years, a period in which humans migrated from eastern Africa to inhabit every continent on Earth except Antarctica. As they spread out geographically, they also diversified genetically.

When a genetic variant arises in an individual and is passed down through the maternal lines, it will be present in living descendants. Since members of a haplogroup tend to be found in the same region of the world, your maternal haplogroup can say something about where some of your maternal-line ancestors lived. Geneticists use global haplogroup distributions to trace significant events in human prehistory, such as the migration of people to the Americas or the expansion of agriculture from the Middle East.

In many cases, we can offer accounts of where and when a haplogroup originated. Maternal haplogroups begin with a capital letter occasionally two that designates a major branch of the mitochondrial DNA tree.

That capital letter is often followed by a series of numbers and lower-case letters, each corresponding to a subsequent branch of the tree. All lineages of a subgroup share one or more mutations, but sometimes there are a few lineages that don't fit into any named subgroup of a haplogroup. Since there isn't a known mutation linking these lineages, they don't get their own subgroup.

Sometimes new research leads to the discovery of mutations that link several of the "star" lineages. When that happens the lineages get a new name and lose their "star" designation. Maternal haplogroups are named with sequences of letters and numbers that reflect the structure of the tree and how the branches relate to one another.

The framework used to identify different haplogroups, and how they relate, is called a phylogenetic tree. To see your haplogroup highlighted in a phylogenetic tree, click " Scientific Details " located near the top of the page. At the left edge of the tree is the most recent common female-line ancestor MRCA of all living people.

Though she was one of perhaps thousands of women alive at the time, only the diverse branches of her haplogroup L have survived to today. The story of your maternal line begins with her. To the right are her descendants. Each major branch of each tree is named with a letter, and deeper branches within the tree are labeled with sequences of numbers and letters.

Each branch is thousands or tens of thousands of years old.Recent genome-wide association studies searching for candidate susceptibility loci for common complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and its common complications have uncovered novel disease-associated genes. Nevertheless these large-scale population screens often overlook the tremendous variation in the mitochondrial genome mtDNA and its involvement in complex disorders.

To test whether these differences alter the pattern of disease susceptibility, we have screened our three Jewish populations for an association of mtDNA genetic haplogroups with T2DM complications. We have generated and analyzed whole mtDNA sequences from the disease associated haplogroups revealing mutations in highly conserved positions that are good candidates to explain the phenotypic effect of these genetic backgrounds. Our findings support the possibility that recent bottleneck events leading to over-representation of minor mtDNA alleles in specific genetic isolates, could result in population-specific susceptibility loci to complex disorders.

The quest for susceptibility genes of common complex disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM has led to recent successful discoveries of novel disease-related genes through the use of large scale genome-wide association studies including thousands of patients belonging to major ethnic groups [ 1 ].

Disease-associated loci often fail to replicate in different populations, because of patterns of population-specific susceptibility [ 2 ].

This may occur due to genetic drift and founder effects, turning minor alleles in a certain populations to prevalent ones in another population. One may hypothesize that some of these alleles carry functional effects underlying differences in disease susceptibility between populations. Revealing such an effect requires mining special populations, such as the Jews, that due to bottleneck events have increased incidence of alleles that are less abundant in the general population.

The Jewish people underwent several recent bottleneck events after the year old Babylonian and year old Roman deportation from Israel [ 34 ]. These resulted in geographically separated Jewish communities that kept their customs and religion over centuries, mostly marrying within the communities with little or no intermarriage with local non-Jews, suggesting several founder events. Thus, Jews represent an excellent model to study possible association of population-specific alleles with common disorders, including T2DM [ 5 ].

T2DM is the most common metabolic disease today, with increasing incidence in the Western world 1. Given that T2DM is a common complex disorder with considerable heritability, it is probably influenced by a combination of predisposing common genetic variants, potentially including mtDNA variants.

Although mtDNA genetic variants have previously been associated with complex disorders in some populations [ 14 ], its extensive genetic variability [ 15 ] and uniparental inheritance may result in diverse association among specific populations [ 16 ]. Indeed, mtDNA genetic association with T2DM exemplifies the differences among populations: significant association of certain mtDNA genetic backgrounds haplogroups was found in Asians [ 17 ] but not in Caucasians as documented in a recent large scale analysis [ 18 ].

Similar to T2DM, diabetic complications are complex phenotypes determined by multiple pathways with a large genetic component. Diabetic complications increase markedly in incidence after 5—10 years of active T2DM, but with extreme variability in onset and progression, i.

Being responsible for most T2DM-associated mortality, diabetic complications involve pathology in small and large vessels micro- and macrovascular diseaseencompassing malfunction of the mitochondrial OXPHOS [ 25 ]. Thus, mtDNA variants could be logical candidates to alter the genetic risk to the major diabetic complications- nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease [ 26 ]. Furthermore, sequencing of the mtDNA hyper variable region 1 HVR1 of haplogroup N1b patients in our populations revealed that the Ashkenazi population harbored only the A motif termed "N1b1" which is extremely rare in other populations, whereas of the seven Seph N1b patients, five harbored the N1b1 motif and two harbored a G motif termed "N1b2" which is found at low prevalence in Caucasians.

Haplogroup distribution in the three studied populations: Letters under the X-axis — haplogroup names; Y-axis — percentage of each haplogroup of the corresponding populations Ash — lines, Seph — black, NAF — white. This significant genetic divergence of mtDNA genetic variation could result in population-specific signals of mtDNA association with complex disorders. In order to evaluate this we have assessed possible association of mtDNA haplogroups with the major complications of T2DM separately within each of the three populations.

This approach enabled minimizing the possible effects of population stratification. These complications were chosen because of their high prevalence in T2DM and since the organs involved heart, retina and kidney, respectively are highly affected in mitochondrial disorders [ 29 ].Some contemporary notable figures have made their test results public in the course of news programs about this topic. These are results from ancient samples of the person or reputed remains of the person.

In the body of Jesse James was exhumed and his DNA compared to that of two known living relatives; he was matched with each [ according to whom? The skeleton excavated from the Cheddar Gorge is in haplogroup U5a. His results matched those of a cousin, Count Nikolai Trubetskoy.

Because mtDNA is carried through the direct female line, some researchers have identified the haplotype of historic persons by testing descendants in their direct female line.

In the case of males, their mother's direct female lineage descendants are tested.

Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup U5 - mtDNA Test Results for Members

On 4 FebruaryUniversity of Leicester researchers announced that there was an mtDNA match between that of a skeleton exhumed in Leicester suspected of belonging to Richard III and that of Joy Ibsen's son, Michael Ibsen, and a second unnamed direct maternal line descendant. The following are contemporary individuals who have had mtDNA results publicized:.

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During an interview with Dr. Tutankhamun 's Y-DNA haplogroup was not published in the academic paper. Confirmation of this genetic profile requires testing of a known relative. The sample was tested at two laboratories with the same results. Reported researchers: "Five STR loci [from the sample taken from the head] match the alleles found in Louis XVI, while another locus shows an allele that is just one mutation step apart.

Taking into consideration that the partial Y-chromosome profile is extremely rare in modern human databases, we concluded that both males could be paternally related. In fact the Gediminids and Rurikids are actually very distant cousins, sharing a common ancestor circa 2, years ago. DNA purported to be from Genghis Khan does not have the benefit of near and easily documented lineages.


A distinct 'modal' result centers today on Mongolia. Most ancient ancestor known was Humphrey Harvey —, Kent, England. Decorte said that permission from the Russian government to make a conclusive analysis of the jawbone of Adolf Hitler, or from the bloodstained cloth of the sofa where he committed suicide would put an end to the speculations, but that had not been granted.

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Mulders confirmed the misinterpretation of his account with the following statement to Family Tree DNA: " I never wrote that Hitler was a Jew, or that he had a Jewish grandfather. I only wrote that Hitler's haplogroup is E1b1b, being more common among Berbers, Somalian people and Jews than among overall Germans. This, in order to convey that he was not exactly what during the Third Reich would have been called 'Aryan.

Results suggested that the 5th-century warlord known as "Niall of the Nine Hostages" or a male ancestor may be the male-line ancestor of one in 12 Irishmen. Niall established a dynasty of powerful chieftains who dominated the island for six centuries. It should be noted that Dr. Moore's results examined some different parts of DNA loci from the result given here.It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8b[3] and it has an estimated age of c. It was also found in a significant group of Palestinian Arabs.

This high percentage points to a genetic bottleneck occurring some generations ago. The average of European K frequency is 5. K appears to be highest in the Morbihan It has long been known that some techniques of farming, together with associated plant and animal breeds, spread into Europe from the Near East.

The evidence from ancient DNA suggests that the Neolithic culture spread by human migration. It cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade K1a, K1b or K1c. This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup K subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation [2] and subsequent published research. A study involving Caucasian patients showed that individuals classified as haplogroup J or K demonstrated a significant decrease in risk of Parkinson's disease versus individuals carrying the most common haplogroup, H.

On an 18 November broadcast of the Today Showduring an interview with Dr. NYU Press, Aug 1, Google eBook [18].

Haplogroup K (mtDNA)

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigationsearch. See also: List of genetic results derived from historical figures. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in Request account. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history. This page was last modified on 10 Augustat This article's content derived from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia See original source.The origins of Ashkenazi Jews remain highly controversial.

Like Judaism, mitochondrial DNA is passed along the maternal line.

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Its variation in the Ashkenazim is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders have been difficult to trace to a source. Furthermore, most of the remaining minor founders share a similar deep European ancestry. Thus the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Levant, as commonly supposed, nor recruited in the Caucasus, as sometimes suggested, but assimilated within Europe.

These results point to a significant role for the conversion of women in the formation of Ashkenazi communities, and provide the foundation for a detailed reconstruction of Ashkenazi genealogical history.

The origins of Ashkenazi Jews—the great majority of living Jews—remain highly contested and enigmatic to this day 12345678910 The Ashkenazim are Jews with a recent ancestry in central and Eastern Europe, in contrast to Sephardim with an ancestry in Iberia, followed by exile afterMizrahim who have always resided in the Near East and North African Jews comprising both Sephardim and Mizrahim.

There were Diaspora communities throughout Mediterranean Europe and the Near East for several centuries prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE Common Eraand some scholars suggest that their scale implies proselytism and wide-scale conversion, although this view is very controversial 9 The Ashkenazim are thought to have emerged from dispersals north into the Rhineland of Mediterranean Jews in the early Middle Ages, although there is little evidence before the twelfth century 5 After expulsions from Western Europe between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, the communities are thought to have expanded eastwards, especially in Poland, Lithuania and then Russia.

This seems an ideal problem to tackle with genetic analysis, but after decades of intensive study a definitive answer remains elusive. Although we might imagine that such an apparently straightforward admixture question might be readily addressed using genome-wide autosomal markers, recent studies have proposed contradictory conclusions.

An important reason for disagreement is that the Ashkenazim have undergone severe founder effects during their history, drastically altering the frequencies of genetic markers and distorting the relationship with their ancestral populations. This problem can be resolved by reconstructing the relationships genealogically, rather than relying on allele frequencies, using the non-recombining marker systems: the paternally inherited male-specific part of the Y chromosome MSY and the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA mtDNA.

This kind of analysis can be very powerful, because nesting of particular lineages within clusters from a particular geographical region allows us to pinpoint the source for those lineages, by applying the parsimony principle. The maternal line has also been studied, and indeed Ashkenazi mtDNAs are highly distinctive, but they have proved difficult to assign to a source population 12 Some progress has been made by targeting whole-mtDNA genomes or mitogenomes, which provide much higher genealogical and therefore geographical and chronological resolution than the control-region sequences used previously—although the far larger control-region database remains an invaluable guide to their geographic distribution.

Using this approach, Behar et al. These lineages are extremely infrequent across the Near East and Europe, making the identification of potential source populations very challenging. Here we focus on both major and minor founders, with a much larger database from potential source populations. We show that European and Near Eastern lineages largely fall into discrete, ancient clusters, with minor episodes of gene flow, suggesting that haplogroup K diversified separately in Europe and the Near East during the last glacial period.Age: 21, Note: This information does not imply an endorsement of YFull or their methods.

It is provided at the request of readers. Haplogroup K2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 16, and 25, years Behar et al. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree.

The current build is GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build I am working on changing results over to build The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content Summary Age: 21, American journal of human genetics90 4Im a K2 and have no idea where i come from.

From my father's side im R1a. Unfortunately my mother's parents died very young so we dont know much about that part of our genealogical tree. Im born in Poland, now living in Norway: Cheers, cousins of Oetzi :. I am also a K2 and my mother's ancestors came from Wales. Also a cousin of Oetzi the Iceman. Another K2.

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Not finding much specific info on K2. Jane, if you are on sometime, I would like to talk to you. I am also a Levy, and just found out that I was adopted Jan. Of course he and I had no idea, but found out all the relatives knew of it. I wrote to her and she promised to help me locate my family. She kept that promise and has a friend in Belgium, who speaks French and was able to obtain my birth mother, Jenny Levy's French birth certificate.

I was also surprised to find only a very small amount of Native American 1. I'm wondering if anyone has any history or knowledge about French and French Canadians of Jewish origin migrating to Canada.

Some of the early Native Americans along the Northeast coast of America may have have actually come from N.

Europe prior to the voyages of Columbus. These Native Americans may have had a primitive culture, but as they were predominantly white, they soon blended in with the new European settlers after Columbus.

Additionally, I believe I've read on the Internet that there were a lot of Jews who came to the New World to mine for gold several hundred years ago. Hi Rosemarie I have been doing ancestral and dna research and knew we were French and First Nations back to the s. The Jews were variably persecuted in Europe between and s and many were forced to convert to Catholicism under pain of torture or death. Many converted to the St. Denis Catholic group, which was involved with the coronations of the French Kings.

In Ojibway legends, it's said our Anishinaabek ancestors originally came from an island beyond the east coast Beyond that Perhaps your ancestors followed similar routes. Post a Comment. Like thousands of other genealogists, I swabbed my cheek at a genealogy society meeting several years ago in a project conducted by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation SMGF.

Today, I received my invitation via email to view my mtDNA results. I'm not overly surprised of course. The chart above is the distribution of the K haplogroup for mitochondrial DNA. The web site says this about the K haplogroup : "Mitochondrial haplogroup K is a sub-branch of lineage U. Ancestors in this haplogroup expanded into Europe about 25, years ago, just before the last Ice Age. In particular, four Ashkenazi founding lineages were recently identified — three of these lineages were within haplogroup K.

These four lineages underwent major expansions throughout Europe within the past millennium. However, if there are persons with exact matches of the mtDNAthen it is possible that there is an mtDNA match within the last years or so.

GeneTree is a social networking site - you can invite family members to join and view the tree, add information and media, and see the DNA results.

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